Sunday, May 24, 2009

Swara Part II


Carnatic Music Ragas is based on an important formula called “ 72 Melakartha Scheme”. A Mela is the combination 7 Swaras taken in order , S R G M P D N both in Arohanam [Ascending order] and Avarohanam [Descending order], using one Swara out of two [already available the posting on Swaras. There can be 32 combination arrived at.

But there, still remains scope for more of such combinations, if both varieties of the Swaras , except S and P, are used.

The rule of 72 Melakartha recommends not to use both varieties of Swaras except S and P ,which are having no variations.

Finding solution for this :

the Swara Chatusruthi Rishabam is assigned another name, Sudda Gandaram,

Sadarana Gandaram is assigned another name, Shatsruthi Rishabam,

Chatusruthi Daivatham is assigned another name , Sudda Nishadam, and

Kaisika Nishadam is assigned another name Shatsruthi Daivatham.

In other words, the Swara Chatusruthi Rishabam and Sudda Gandaram will sound the same Swarasthana.

Sadarana Gandaram and Shatsruthi Rishabam will sound in the same Swarasthana.

Chatusruthi Daivatham and Sudda Nishadam will sound in the same Swarasthana.

Kaisika Nishadam and Shatsruthi Daivatham will sound in the same Swrasthana.

Now, there are a total of 16 Swaras sounding in the place of 12 Swarasthanas.

The Swaras , Sudda Gandaram, Shatsruthi Rishabam, Sudda Nishadam and Shatsruthi Daivatham are called Vivadi Swaras.

Normally these Swaras are played or sung without Gamakas.

It is to be noted that the Swaras Chatusruthi Rishabam and Sudda Gandaram will not find place in a Sampoorna Ragam,

Similarly, Shatsruthi Rishabam and Sadarana Gandaram will not find place in a Sampoorna Ragam,

Chatusruthi Rishabum and Sudda Nishadam will not find place in a Sampoorna Ragam, and

Shatsruthi Daivatham and Kaishiki Nishadam will not find place in a Sampoorna Ragam,

Sampoorna Ragam is one in which 7 Swaras are there, taken in order both in Arohanam and Avarohanam.

The Swaras can now be summarized as follows:

Shadjam 1 No

Rishabam 3 Nos

Gandaramm 3 Nos

Madyamam 2 Nos

Panchamam 1 No

Daivatham 3 Nos

Nishadam 3 Nos.

Now the Swara Chart assumes different style:

1. Shadjam

2. Suddha Rishabam

3. Chathusruthi Rishabam…&… 4 Sudda Gandaram.. at the same Swarasthanam

5 Sadarana Gandaran …&…6 Shatsruthi Rishabam.. at the same Swarasthanam

7. Anthara Gandaram

8. Suddha Madyamam

9 Prathi Madyamam

10 Panchamam

11 Suddha Daivatham

12 Chatusruthi Daivatham…& 13. Suddha Nishadam.. at the Swarasthanam

14. Kaisiki Nishadam……& 15. Shatsruthi Daivatham.. at the same Swarasthanam

16. Kakali Nishadam.

By using one Swara, viz, S R G M P D N, from the above list , 72 combinations can be arrived at ,still satisfying the requirement of “ 72 Mela kartha” scheme.

For the self- learners , this theory may appear a bit complicated.

Each of the combination so arrived is called a Mela Kartha and is the basis of the entire Raga System in Carnatic Music.

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